About Handbook

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               Entrepreneurship and Cooperative are the key drivers of a nation's economy. Developing countries aspiring to boost their participationin global economy would capitalise on the opportunities and mitigate challenges regardless of its location. The impact of sustainability, cultural and environment has also evolved the way entrepreneurshipand co-operatives are managed. The Handbook of Entrepreneurship and Co-operative Development managed attract six articles from Malaysia, Sri Lanka and Nigeria. The articles are grouped under three sub-themes - sustainability issues, cultural issues and environmental issues.


The Sustainability Issues

Three papers are presented here. SWSB Dasanayaka wrote on how small and medium scale enterprises can be developed through business incubators. The issue of survival among small and medium scale enterprise is becoming an important agenda of a country. This paper proposes a new business incubators model to nurture start-ups in Sri Lanka. While the paper by Lucky, Rahman and Minai explored conceptually on how to help sustain new starts-up using a cooperative approach. The paper attempts to enlighten readers on th elinkages between cooperative concepts in the entrepreneurship domain which is an emerging trend in the 21st century. The sustainability issue was further adressed by Zamzuri Noor by examined the impact of microfinance on the performance of the non-agricultural micro and small enterprises. The microfinance study in this attempt were strictly concerning the Amanah Ikhtiar Malaysia (AIM) an establishment under the "Trustees" (Incorporation) Act 1952 of Malaysia. AIM targets the poorest group i.e. those income below 2/3 of the Malaysia's current Povevrty Line. This study emphasises that microfinance plays an important role in enhancing the performance of the micro small enterprise.


The Cutural Issues

Moving on from the sustainability was the cultural context. Here the papers focused on the cultural context as a key driver of sustainability of entrepreneurship. The paper by SWSB Dasanayaka explored at cultural issues in developing rural economics. This paper stressed the importance of innovation and culture as a key drivers to the entrepreneurial activities. On a similar vein, Dandago and Ango examined the cultural aspects ethnicity in the Nigerian entrepreneurship. The study explored on the determinants of entrepreneurship inclination in a comparison in ethnicity.


The Environmental Issues

The final issue on this handbook touched on the environmental issue that has impact on entrepreneurship development. In this section SWSB Dasanayaka focused on entrepreneurial opportunity among the aging population. This paper serves as an information provider to the policy makers to device relevant strategies in serving aging population involvement in entrepreneurship.

This handbook is expected to give readers an insight on how entrepreneurship can be developed and managed. The issues in this handbook would facilitate the policy makers, practitioners and academician on empirical evidences to mechanise new strategies and future study opportunities to enhance the entrepreneurship knowledge. It is also hoped that this handbook wolud serve as a foundation to further enhance entrepreneurship initiatives in Malaysia.